[TangerineSDR] [hamsci-grape] Re: 3-Channel VLF SDR Backend System

Jonathan emuman100 at gmail.com
Wed Aug 16 13:26:46 EDT 2023


Do you have a time domain plot showing the clock domains?

Do you synthesize it from the timepulse2 output on the M8T or do you
utilize a DDS with a holdover oscillator?

Also, do you capture bandwidth in the audio range or even less?


On Wed, Aug 16, 2023 at 12:58 PM John Gibbons <jcg66 at case.edu> wrote:

> Jonathan,
> Yes - the 1PPS is spot on and the 8KHz A/D sample timing is synthesized
> directly from the UBLOX 8MHz GPSDO'd output that runs the entire data
> collection engine.
> John N8OBJ
> On Tue, Aug 15, 2023 at 12:50 PM Jonathan <emuman100 at gmail.com> wrote:
>> Hi John,
>> Did you take measurements of the PPS  and clock accuracy? How is the 8
>> kHz sample clock synthesized?
>> The Audio Injector Octo uses a crystal oscillator, but like in the
>> previous email thread about timing, vlfrx-tools is constantly making
>> measurements and calibrating out the delay, then realigning each sample
>> according to that series of calibrations and alignment of the centroid of
>> an RC network-shaped PPS. I manually insert a calibration value consisting
>> of the time between the rising edge of the rectangular pulse and the
>> centroid of the RC network-shaped pulse, giving me similar PPS accuracy as
>> you have achieved.
>> Jonathan
>> On Mon, Aug 14, 2023 at 2:44 PM John Gibbons <jcg66 at case.edu> wrote:
>>> Jonathan,
>>> The absolute accuracy of the 1PPS synchronization lies exactly between
>>> 1-2 sync clock cycles (crossing over clock domains requires this to prevent
>>> metastability - you must do this as well!)
>>> so my 1PPS is always between 125-250 nSec (8 MHz clk) from the 50 nSec
>>> window that the UBLOX gives me for absolute timing of the 1PPS signal.
>>> The derived sample clock, however, is deadly accurate as it is also
>>> derived from the UBLOX freq output so it will easily hold 1x10^-10 accuracy
>>> and on an 8 KHz sample clock it guarantees me to be within 12.5 aSec (yes
>>> 10^-15 sec).  Since I presume you're using the on board clock for your A/D
>>> card you will be at least 4 orders of magnitude worse as quartz xtals (or
>>> even worse a resonator!) are not so good (not to mention temp drift that
>>> will eat you alive...).
>>> The sample clock is very important as it determines your A/D sample freq
>>> hence directly affects any timing / frequency measurements you extract from
>>> your data.
>>> For us it directly affects the freq measurement of the carrier freq and
>>> needs to be pretty darn good (12.5 aSec is pretty respectable).
>>> What is your freq ref standard for the A/D sample clock?  Is it GPS
>>> DO'd?  Is it synced to the 1PPS?
>>> John N8OBJ
>>> On Mon, Aug 14, 2023 at 12:13 PM Jonathan <emuman100 at gmail.com> wrote:
>>>> John,
>>>> Did you take measurements of the sampling and timestamping accuracy of
>>>> the Grape 2? I don't believe you included it in the other email.
>>>> Jonathan
>>>> KC3EEY
>>>> On Mon, Aug 14, 2023 at 11:21 AM John Gibbons <jcg66 at case.edu> wrote:
>>>>> That has already been designed and built and hardware tested (with
>>>>> better timing for data sampling) - it's called the Grape 2
>>>>> John N8OBJ
>>>>> On Mon, Aug 14, 2023 at 9:57 AM Jonathan <emuman100 at gmail.com> wrote:
>>>>>> My apologies, the pictures did not attach inline. The attachments are
>>>>>> all in order of what I describe.
>>>>>> Jonathan
>>>>>> KC3EEY
>>>>>> On Mon, Aug 14, 2023 at 6:20 AM Jonathan <emuman100 at gmail.com> wrote:
>>>>>>> I have been working on a 3-channel VLF backend system similar to the
>>>>>>> single channel system I built in 2020. It's based on a Raspberry Pi 3,
>>>>>>> Audio Injector Octo Soundcard, Trimble Resolution SMTx GPS timing receiver,
>>>>>>> and VLF preamp interface board and power distribution. It's designed to
>>>>>>> capture VLF spectrum from an E-field receiver and an orthogonal loop dual
>>>>>>> channel H-field receiver for triple axis reception of the VLF band. With
>>>>>>> it, bearing can be determined and the loops can be synthesized for any
>>>>>>> bearing based on how the loop signals are mixed. This provides additional
>>>>>>> analysis of VLF signals using the powerful vlfrx-tools software. Everything
>>>>>>> in mounted in a Hammond dicast aluminum enclosure. In the center is the
>>>>>>> Raspberry Pi 3B, Audio Injector Octo Soundcard with audio breakout board,
>>>>>>> and TTL<>RS232 adapter for the serial console. On the left are power,
>>>>>>> capture, and timing status indicator LEDs as well as a safe shutdown button
>>>>>>> to safely unmount the data USB drive. On the right is the Trimble
>>>>>>> Resolution SMTx and interface board. On the bottom is the VLF receiver
>>>>>>> interface board.
>>>>>>> This is the Pi 3B with Audio Injector Octo soundcard. It has 6 audio
>>>>>>> inputs and can sample up to 96 kHz. The audio breakout board breaks out the
>>>>>>> audio inputs to RCA jacks, which I removed, for a direct solder connection.
>>>>>>> The PPS from the GPS gets get through a potentiometer for adjustment to 80%
>>>>>>> of the soundcard’s full scale. I will be feeding it through an RC network
>>>>>>> to shape the 125 us pulse. The PPS is also connected to a GPIO pin for use
>>>>>>> with the ppsgpio driver, GPS Daemon, and ntp and functions as a networked
>>>>>>> stratum 1 time server as well. Data is stored on a 512 MB USB drive. The
>>>>>>> console port is accessible via TTL<>RS232 adapter (in blue heat shrink) for
>>>>>>> complete headless operation, especially when the network is not available.
>>>>>>> Both the Ethernet and RS232 are connected to RJ45 bulkhead couplers for
>>>>>>> panel jack connection. The indicator LEDs, shutdown button, console port,
>>>>>>> and GPIO PPS all connect through a 40-pin female header.
>>>>>>> The GPS is a Trimble Resolution SMTx GPS timing receiver. I used it
>>>>>>> because it was cheap and what I had on hand, but still performs well for an
>>>>>>> older model of the Trimble/Protempis GNSS timing receiver line. The PPS
>>>>>>> time pulse width is 125 us. It’s powered using the handy PPS Piggy
>>>>>>> interface board for Trimble/Protempis receivers. The antenna is connected
>>>>>>> through an SMA to SMB pigtail with bulkhead SMA jack. The other hole in the
>>>>>>> enclosure is for the Raspberry Pi WiFi antenna jack which I will add later.
>>>>>>> The indicator LEDs are panel mounted as well as the safe shutdown
>>>>>>> button. These provide an indicator for power, soundcard capture, and GPS
>>>>>>> timing, with the later two controlled by GPIO pins and series resistors.
>>>>>>> The safe shutdown button will issue “shutdown -h now” when pressed for
>>>>>>> longer than 3 seconds to safely unmount the USB drive if no network or
>>>>>>> console access is available. Data will constantly be written to the USB
>>>>>>> drive during normal operation in bursts. The USB drive is ext2 fornated.
>>>>>>> The LED indicators and safe shutdown button are monitored via script.
>>>>>>> Lastly, this is the VLF receiver interface board. It provides power
>>>>>>> to the Pi and GPS receiver using an adjustable 3A DC-DC converter set to
>>>>>>> 5.1V. Power to the E-field and H-field VLF receiver channels is through 24V
>>>>>>> isolated DC-DC converters. Main power comes in via 12V unregulated wallwart
>>>>>>> and drives both the adjustable DC-DC converter and the isolated DC-DC
>>>>>>> converters. The VLF receiver channels also have audio isolation
>>>>>>> transformers to maintain isolation between the backend system and VLF
>>>>>>> preamp and connect to the audio inputs on the audio breakout board. Both
>>>>>>> the power and signal paths have 10M bleeder resistors to bleed off any
>>>>>>> excess charge on the feedline as well as gas discharge arrestors for surge
>>>>>>> protection. The feedline is shielded cat5 or cat 6 cable pairs and connect
>>>>>>> to the green screw terminals. The isolated DC-DC converters are plugged
>>>>>>> into pin sockets and are removable in case the feedline is too long and 48V
>>>>>>> DC-DC converters are used to maintain the voltage at the end of the
>>>>>>> feedline due to the voltage drop of a long feedline. The board also
>>>>>>> provides a connection to power LED indicator as well.
>>>>>>> My next step is to fine tune the shaped PPS pulse for more accurate
>>>>>>> timing. Once complete, I will start work on the dual channel H-field
>>>>>>> receiver.
>>>>>>> Jonathan
>>>>>>> KC3EEY
>>>>>> --
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>>>>>> To view this discussion on the web visit
>>>>>> https://groups.google.com/d/msgid/hamsci-grape/CAOY0kB1oFMEHL2-ph5Re%3DOBnBBz%2Bv7aKhZiYnvH5gFTS0L4K-g%40mail.gmail.com
>>>>>> <https://groups.google.com/d/msgid/hamsci-grape/CAOY0kB1oFMEHL2-ph5Re%3DOBnBBz%2Bv7aKhZiYnvH5gFTS0L4K-g%40mail.gmail.com?utm_medium=email&utm_source=footer>
>>>>>> .
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